ATC code: C05BB02
On March 30th, the FDA approved Polidocanol under the trade name Asclera. Polidocanol is a sclerosing agent indicated to treat uncomplicated spider veins (varicose veins ≤1 mm in diameter) and uncomplicated reticular veins (varicose veins 1 to 3 mm in diameter) in the lower extremities. Varicose veins develop when the small valves inside the veins no longer work properly, allowing the blood to flow backwards and then pool in the vein.
When injected intravenously, Polidocanol works by locally damaging the endothelium of the blood vessel, causing platelets to aggregate at the site of damage and attach to the venous wall. Eventually, a dense network of platelets, cellular debris and fibrin occludes the vessel, which is then replaced with connective fibrous tissue. As one would expect for this type of molecule and also the mechanism of action, there is believed to be no specific molecular target for Polidocanol.
Polidocanol is a large 'small molecule' drug (Molecular Weight of 583 g.mol-1), with a mean half-life of 1.5 hr. Polidocanol is administrated intravenously and the strength of the solution and the volume injected depend on the size and extent of the varicose veins. Thus, the recommended dosage is 0.1 to 0.3 mL for each injection (Asclera 0.5% for spider veins and Asclera 1% for reticular veins) into each varicose vein, and a maximum recommended volume per treatment session of 10 mL.
Polidocanol's chemical structure is 2-[2-[2-[2-[2-[2-[2-[2-[2-(dodecyloxy)ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethoxy]ethanol. It is a non-ionic detergent, similar to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in structure, consisting of two components, a polar hydrophilic (dodecyl alcohol) and an apolar hydrophobic (polyethylene oxide - the part in brackets in the chemical structure) chain.
NAME="Polidocanol" TRADEMARK_NAME="Asclera" ATC_code="C05BB02" SMILES="CCCCCCCCCCCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCO" InChI="InChI=1S/C30H62O10/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-13-32-15-17-34-19-21-36-23-25-38-27-29-40-30-28-39-26-24-37-22-20-35-18-16-33-14-12-31/h31H,2-30H2,1H3" InChIKey="ONJQDTZCDSESIW-UHFFFAOYSA-N" ChemDraw=Polidocanol.cdxThe license holder is Chemische Fabrik Kreussler & Co. and the product website is www.asclera.com.