Skip to main content

New Drug Approvals - Pt. XXII - Romidepsin (Istodax)

Approved on November 5th 2009 was Romidepsin (trade name Istodax). Romidepsin, previously known by the research codes FK-228, FR-901228 and NSC-630176, is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor indicated for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in patients who have received at least one prior systemic therapy. CTCL is a slow-growing cancer of infection-fighting white blood cells called T-lymphocytes. Romidepsin binds directly to the HDAC active site blocking substrate access. HDACs catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from acetylated lysine residues in histones, resulting in the modulation of gene expression. Romidepsin causes the accumulation of acetylated histones, and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells. Romidepsin is the fourth drug to be approved for CTCL, after Vorinostat (trade name Zolinza), Bexarotene (trade name Targretin) and Denileukin Difitox (trade name Ontak). Vorinostat is a small-molecule drug which also inhibits HDACs, whereas Bexarotene is a small-molecule retinoid selective for retinoid X receptors and Denileukin Difitox is an engineered protein combining interleukin-2 and diphtheria toxin, which binds to interleukin-2 receptors and introduce the diphtheria toxin into cells that express those receptors, killing the cells. Romidepsin is a Natural Product drug discovered from a fermentation broth of the bacteria Chromobacterium violaceum. It is a cyclic peptide with a molecular weight of 540.71 g.mol-1. It is highly protein bound in plasma (92% to 94%), with alpha1-acid-glycoprotein being the principal binding protein. Romidepsin undergoes extensive metabolism primarily by CYP3A4 with minor contribution from CYP3A5, CYP1A1, CYP2B6 and CYP2C19. It has a terminal half-life of ~3 hours. Among one of the potential adverse events is the propensity for the compound to increase QT interval. The recommended dose of Romidepsin is 14 mg.m-2 administrated intravenously over a 4-hour period on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. The full prescribing information can be found here. Romidepsin's chemical structure is (1S,4S,7Z,10S,16E,21R)-7-ethylidene-4,21-bis(1-methylethyl)-2-oxa-12,13-dithia-5,8,20,23-tetraazabicyclo[8.7.6]tricos-16-ene-3,6,9,19,22-pentone. It is a cyclic depsipeptide (peptide in which one or more amide bonds are replaced by ester bonds) with four component amino acids and a beta-hydroxyamide moiety (an amide and an hydroxy functional groups separated by two carbons atoms), which collectively form a 16-membered lactone with a disulfide bridge. The disulfide bond is reduced in the cellular environment, releasing the free thiol analogue as the active species.
<NAME="Romidepsin">
<SMILES="CC=C1C(=O)NC(C(=O)OC2CC(=O)NC(C(=O)NC(CSSCCC=C2)C(=O)N1)C(C)C)C(C)C">
<InChI="InChI=1S/C24H36N4O6S2/c1-6-16-21(30)28-20(14(4)5)24(33)34-15-9-7-8-10-35-
36-12-17(22(31)25-16)26-23(32)19(13(2)3)27-18(29)11-15/h6-7,9,13-15,17,19-20H,8,10-
12H2,1-5H3,(H,25,31)(H,26,32)(H,27,29)(H,28,30)/b9-7+,16-6-/t15-,17-,19-,20+/m1/s1">
<InChIKey="OHRURASPPZQGQM-GCCNXGTGSA-N">
<ChemDraw=Romidepsin.cdx>
The manufacturer of Romidepsin is Gloucester Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and the product website is www.istodax.com.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

ChEMBL 34 is out!

We are delighted to announce the release of ChEMBL 34, which includes a full update to drug and clinical candidate drug data. This version of the database, prepared on 28/03/2024 contains:         2,431,025 compounds (of which 2,409,270 have mol files)         3,106,257 compound records (non-unique compounds)         20,772,701 activities         1,644,390 assays         15,598 targets         89,892 documents Data can be downloaded from the ChEMBL FTP site:  https://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/chembl/ChEMBLdb/releases/chembl_34/ Please see ChEMBL_34 release notes for full details of all changes in this release:  https://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/chembl/ChEMBLdb/releases/chembl_34/chembl_34_release_notes.txt New Data Sources European Medicines Agency (src_id = 66): European Medicines Agency's data correspond to EMA drugs prior to 20 January 2023 (excluding vaccines). 71 out of the 882 newly added EMA drugs are only authorised by EMA, rather than from other regulatory bodies e.g.

New SureChEMBL announcement

(Generated with DALL-E 3 ∙ 30 October 2023 at 1:48 pm) We have some very exciting news to report: the new SureChEMBL is now available! Hooray! What is SureChEMBL, you may ask. Good question! In our portfolio of chemical biology services, alongside our established database of bioactivity data for drug-like molecules ChEMBL , our dictionary of annotated small molecule entities ChEBI , and our compound cross-referencing system UniChem , we also deliver a database of annotated patents! Almost 10 years ago , EMBL-EBI acquired the SureChem system of chemically annotated patents and made this freely accessible in the public domain as SureChEMBL. Since then, our team has continued to maintain and deliver SureChEMBL. However, this has become increasingly challenging due to the complexities of the underlying codebase. We were awarded a Wellcome Trust grant in 2021 to completely overhaul SureChEMBL, with a new UI, backend infrastructure, and new f

Accessing SureChEMBL data in bulk

It is the peak of the summer (at least in this hemisphere) and many of our readers/users will be on holiday, perhaps on an island enjoying the sea. Luckily, for the rest of us there is still the 'sea' of SureChEMBL data that awaits to be enjoyed and explored for hidden 'treasures' (let me know if I pushed this analogy too far). See here and  here for a reminder of SureChEMBL is and what it does.  This wealth of (big) data can be accessed via the SureChEMBL interface , where users can submit quite sophisticated and granular queries by combining: i) Lucene fields against full-text and bibliographic metadata and ii) advanced structure query features against the annotated compound corpus. Examples of such queries will be the topic of a future post. Once the search results are back, users can browse through and export the chemistry from the patent(s) of interest. In addition to this functionality, we've been receiving user requests for  local (behind the