ATC Code: C02KX (incomplete)
On October 13th the FDA approved Macitentan (trade name Opsumit ®) for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Macitentan is an endothelin receptor antagonist (with affinities to both Endothelin ET-A (ETA) and Endothelin ET-B (ETB) receptor subtypes, similar in mechanism of action to the previously licensed drug Bosentan, CHEMBLID957).
The Endothelin receptor ET-A (ETA, CHEMBLID252 ; Uniprot P25101) and Endothelin receptor ET-B (ETB, CHEMBLID1785 ; Uniprot P24530) receptors mediate a number of physiological effects via the natural peptide agonist Endothelin-1 (ET1 , CHEMBL437472 ; Uniprot P05305). In addition to normal roles in supporting homeostasis, these effects can include pathologies such as inflammation, vasoconstriction, fibrosis and hypertrophy.
Macitentan acts as an antagonist for both receptors with both a high affinity and long residence time in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Hence it counteracts vasoconstriction and relieves hypertension. One of the metabolites of Macitentan is also pharmacologically active at the ET receptors and is estimated to be about 20% as potent as the parent drug in vitro
Macitentan (CHEMBL2103873 ; Pubchem : 16004692 ) is a small molecule drug with a molecular weight of 588.3 Da, an AlogP of 3.67, 11 rotatable bonds, and 1 rule of 5 violation.
Canonical SMILES : CCCNS(=O)(=O)Nc1ncnc(OCCOc2ncc(Br)cn2)c1c3ccc(Br)cc3InChi: InChI=1S/C19H20Br2N6O4S/c1-2-7-26-32(28,29)27-17-16(13-3-5-14(20)6-4-13)18(25-12-24-17)30-8-9-31-19-22-10-15(21)11-23-19/h3-6,10-12,26H,2,7-9H2,1H3,(H,24,25,27)
Dosage10 mg once daily. Doses higher than 10 mg once daily have not been studied in patients with PAH and are not recommended.
Metabolism and Elimination
Following oral administration, the apparent elimination half-lives of macitentan and its active metabolite are approximately 16 hours and 48 hours, respectively. Macitentan is metabolized primarily by oxidative depropylation of the sulfamide to form the pharmacologically active metabolite. This reaction is dependent on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, mainly CYP3A4 with a minor contribution of CYP2C19. It is interesting to note the presence of bromine atoms in two of the aryl rings, typically a lighter halogen, typically fluorine is used to block oxidative P450-mediated metabolism at these exposed aromatic positions.
At steady state in PAH patients, the systemic exposure to the active metabolite is 3-times the exposure to macitentan and is expected to contribute approximately 40% of the total pharmacologic activity. In a study in healthy subjects with radiolabeled macitentan, approximately 50% of radioactive drug material was eliminated in urine but none was in the form of unchanged drug or the active metabolite. About 24% of the radioactive drug material was recovered from feces.
Macitentan may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Macitentan is contraindicated in females who are pregnant.
Other ERAs have caused elevations of aminotransferases, hepatotoxicity, and liver failure. Obtain liver enzyme tests prior to initiation of Macitentan and repeat during treatment as clinically indicated.
Decreases in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit have occurred following administration
of other ERAs and were observed in clinical studies with Macitentan. These decreases occurred
early and stabilized thereafter Initiation of Macitentan is not recommended in patients with severe anemia. Measure hemoglobin prior to initiation of treatment and repeat during treatment as clinically indicated.
Strong CYP3A4 Inducers / Inhibitors
Strong inducers of CYP3A4 such as rifampin significantly reduce macitentan exposure whereas concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors like ketoconazole approximately double macitentan exposure. Many HIV drugs like ritonavir (CHEMBL163) are strong inhibitors of CYP3A4.
The license holder is Actelion Pharmaceuticals US the full prescribing information can be found here.